What is Aspartame?
Aspartame is an artificial sweetener that is around 200 times sweeter than regular sugar. It was first discovered in 1965 by a chemist working on an anti-ulcer drug. After accidentally licking his finger and noticing the sweet taste, the ingredient was developed and approved for limited food uses in 1974. However, it wasn't until the early 1980s that aspartame was finally approved for widespread use as a tabletop sweetener and as an ingredient in sodas.
Today, aspartame is found in over 6,000 consumer foods and drinks, especially "diet" or "sugar-free" products. Because it provides that sought-after sweet taste with zero calories or carbs, it became immensely popular for weight control and diabetes management. However, its meteoric rise was not without controversy…
The Debate Around Aspartame Safety
Ever since aspartame was approved for commercial use, there have been questions about its safety. Both animal and human research studies on aspartame over the decades have had conflicting results. Some studies claim there are no adverse effects, even at high doses. But other studies have linked aspartame consumption to issues like headaches, dizziness, gastrointestinal problems and even cancer.
Most regulatory agencies, like the FDA and EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), have reviewed the evidence and continue to consider aspartame safe. However, some independent researchers claim that industry-funded studies may be biased, and that there are still lingering questions about its health impacts that need further investigation. There are also concerns that vulnerable subgroups, like children and pregnant women, have not been adequately studied.
So is aspartame actually safe, or not? Let's take a deeper look at some of the most hotly-debated potential health risks.
Aspartame Side Effects and Health Risks
Headaches and Dizziness
One of the most frequently reported negative side effects from aspartame consumption is headaches and dizziness. In FDA adverse reaction reports, headaches were consistently one of the most cited symptoms linked to aspartame.
In one major review of 167 double-blind studies on aspartame, over 50% of participants reported headaches after ingesting aspartame, versus only 24% on placebo. The study authors concluded that aspartame significantly increased headache frequency and severity for a subset of the population.
Other studies have found that people with a history of migraines report more headaches after consuming aspartame than people without a history of migraines. One study had participants ingest aspartame daily for 8 weeks - 60% of migraine sufferers experienced headaches and dizziness, compared to only 35% of non-migraine participants.
The exact mechanisms causing these symptoms are still unknown. However, some scientists hypothesize it may be related to how phenylalanine and methanol, metabolites of aspartame, impact serotonin and dopamine levels in the brain. These are key neurotransmitters that regulate mood, headaches, and dizziness.
An imbalance in serotonin and dopamine is believed to play a role in migraine pathology. The effect may also depend on natural variations in how well individuals metabolize phenylalanine. More research is needed to fully understand the relationships involved.
While the evidence is not yet definitive, these results suggest that a subset of the population appears to be more vulnerable to neurological symptoms like severe headaches and dizziness from consuming aspartame. People prone to migraines and headaches may be especially susceptible. While more research is warranted, avoiding aspartame is a reasonable precaution for those who experience these side effects.
Impact on Children
Many parents are understandably concerned about giving foods and drinks containing aspartame to their children. This is especially true for parents of kids with attention and behavioral issues like ADHD or ADD. However, definitive research on aspartame's effects specifically in child populations is still quite limited.
One small but frequently cited study in 1994 examined the impacts of aspartame on children with ADD. In the study, 25 children received either aspartame-sweetened or sugar-sweetened drinks and their behavior was observed and rated. The researchers found that compared to sugar, drinks with aspartame significantly increased hyperactivity and decreased attention spans in the children with ADD.
However, this was a small study with only 25 participants. Additionally, it was an observational study based on subjective behavior ratings, not a controlled clinical trial. The mechanism behind these effects is unclear. More rigorous, large-scale studies are needed to provide stronger evidence. Still, this initial concerning result is enough to make many parents limit or avoid giving their kids aspartame-containing foods.
The FDA does approve the use of aspartame in products for children, and sets acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels specifically for child age groups. The ADI for children is lower than levels deemed safe for the general population.
For children age 3 and younger, the FDA approves aspartame in foods up to 1.1 mg/kg body weight per day. For kids and teens ages 4-18, intake up to 2.2 mg/kg daily is considered a safe threshold. Despite this go-ahead from regulators, many parents still prefer to exercise caution and limit aspartame as a precaution.
More research on aspartame's long-term effects in developing children is critically needed. Studies should examine impacts on behavior, cognitive function, and key health parameters. Effects may depend on overall diet quality, frequency of exposure, and naturally occurring differences in children's ability to metabolize phenylalanine. Until more evidence is available, many parents are understandably wary of artificial sweeteners for their kids.
Perhaps the most alarming claim is that aspartame consumption may be linked to certain cancers. Some animal studies found an increase in cancers like leukemia, brain tumors and uterine polyps. However, the National Cancer Institute reviewed numerous human and animal studies and found no clear evidence that aspartame poses a cancer risk to humans. But they note that additional research is still needed, especially on long-term exposure.
There is some evidence that heavy consumption of artificial sweeteners like aspartame can disrupt healthy metabolic function and glucose tolerance over time. This could theoretically increase diabetes risk. However more research is required, and effects likely depend on overall diet. For those managing diabetes or obesity, moderation is key.
Harm to Gut Bacteria
Your gastrointestinal system contains trillions of bacteria and other microorganisms, collectively called your gut microbiome. Research continues to uncover just how crucial this complex ecosystem is for nearly every aspect of your health. There is a dynamic, two-way relationship between your diet, gut bacteria and overall wellbeing.
This raises concerns that artificial sweeteners like aspartame could potentially disrupt your microbiome. There have been a few small animal studies that found aspartame and its metabolites impacted gut bacterial composition and activity.
One study fed rats either regular yogurt sweetened with sucrose, or yogurt with low-calorie sweeteners including aspartame. Rats fed artificially sweetened yogurt showed reductions in key beneficial gut bacteria like Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species. They also exhibited higher blood glucose levels.
Another animal study found that compared to sucrose control, aspartame increased Firmicutes bacteria, decreased Bacteroidetes species and reduced overall microbial diversity. Imbalances in these bacteria are associated with negative health impacts.
The mechanisms involved are not fully clear, but may relate to how artificial sweeteners are metabolized versus natural sugars. More research is critically needed, especially large-scale human clinical trials. But these early results are concerning, given the microbiome's key role in immunity, metabolism, digestion and even mental health. If aspartame does disrupt healthy gut flora, this could help explain some reported side effects.
While more evidence is still needed, these preliminary findings provide a reasonable basis for those seeking to limit artificial sweeteners to support microbiome health. Moderating aspartame intake from processed foods and opting for natural sweeteners when possible is a prudent precaution. Every body is unique, but avoiding over-consumption of questionable additives is sensible for optimizing your personal microbiome makeup.
The Case Against Aspartame
Given these potential health risks, it's understandable why many health-conscious consumers try to avoid aspartame altogether. While more research may be required to definitively prove adverse effects, many see cutting out this artificial additive as a better-safe-than-sorry approach. There is also the simple desire for drinks and foods made with organic, natural ingredients, not lab-created chemicals.
Artificial sweeteners like aspartame are designed to provide all the sweetness of sugar, without any calories. But some argue that this makes it too easy to over-consume dangerously sweet foods. There is also evidence that using artificial sweeteners may backfire for weight loss, by disrupting appetite signals and gut bacteria. For many, moderation and natural sources of sugar are a healthier approach.
The clean living movement continues to grow, with more consumers demanding fewer artificial additives and preservatives in their foods. Many shoppers automatically flip packages around, scanning ingredients lists to check for aspartame and other potentially harmful chemicals. While the FDA deems aspartame safe, many health-conscious consumers prefer to exercise caution and avoid it.
Why BrainPOP Says No to Aspartame
Here at BrainPOP, we're committed to only using high-quality, organic, non-GMO ingredients in our sodas. We will never use artificial sweeteners, flavors, colors or preservatives to cut costs or corners. We believe you deserve a delicious, naturally flavored soda made with care, not chemicals.
While regulatory agencies currently approve of aspartame, there are still reasonable concerns about potential long-term health impacts. We feel strongly that artificial sweeteners have no place in a children's drink focused on brain health and nutrition. And we're not willing to gamble with our customer's health and safety.
Instead of aspartame, BrainPOP sodas are lightly sweetened with organic cane sugar. This minimizes your sugar intake compared to regular soda, while still providing that touch of natural sweetness. We aim for that perfect balance between optimizing your health and delighting your tastebuds.
We're proud to offer soda options that say no to aspartame and yes to wholesome ingredients. You can enjoy our drinks guilt-free knowing that there are no artificial sweeteners, flavors, preservatives or other unwanted additives. Just honest ingredients like organic fruit juices, herbs, and spices.
Enjoy Aspartame-Free Sodas Guilt-Free
If you're looking to cut back on aspartame, read those labels carefully! It can sneak into yogurts, protein bars, gum, cereal and especially "sugar-free" or "diet" packaged foods.
Luckily, BrainPOP offers a line of refreshingly flavorful sodas that are aspartame-free! Our organic, low-sugar formulas provide a tasty, lighter alternative to mainstream sodas packed with artificial sweeteners.
Enjoy the peace of mind that comes from avoiding controversial ingredients like aspartame. BrainPOP sodas are a healthy, homemade taste you can feel good about!
So when searching for a delicious, nourshing soda, skip the artificially-sweetened ones laden with suspect chemicals. Instead, reach for a refreshing BrainPOP drink made with thoughtfully-sourced, organic ingredients. Your body will thank you!